With the implementation of family reunion from , the accumulation of social capital in the host country proceeded apace cf. These family and neighbourly relations from the context of origin ensured the necessary communicative substructure for the establishment of associations among Turkish immigrants. Accommodation in company housing was brought to an end, and public socio-cultural life came to the fore. In the course of chain migration, new needs developed in the neighbourhood, such as the religious education of the children or recreational activities, for which solutions had to be found in the host country.
Thus a conscious process of reflection began among pioneer immigrant fathers which would not have happened among singles. The institutional answer to the new social, cultural, and material challenges in the Duisburg district followed in with the founding of a mosque. This institutionalised the norms and values of the home country. As historical immigration processes have shown, churches are among the first institutions to be set up in the new country cf.
Hertzberg , 22 f. This depends among other things on freedom of religion being guaranteed by the host country, permitting immigrants to organise their religious life in accordance with their own wishes cf. Bretting , ff. The places of worship built symbolised the establishment of the immigrants in their new home. Their importance is not restricted to the religious aspect; they also exercise an attraction on non-religious immigrants because of their social function.
The A to Z of Alternatives - RLS
For immigrants to North America in the 18 th century, for example, German churches performed an important function in helping pioneers to integrate cf. The first community centre in the Duisburg district performed a similar integrative function. Ethnic Turkish immigrants rented a former restaurant and restored it at their own expense. Lajios , The two new structural elements were, however, reduced to their protective and orientation functions; the politico-religious aspects were irrelevant.
For the confrontation with an alien societal order provoked recourse to familiar cultural patterns and strengthened the identity of origin. The need for orientation and security was satisfied by establishing community structures cf. Seufert , In particular, these structures had a self-help function in the early years of immigration, since immigrants needed orientation in almost all areas of life.
The A to Z of Alternatives 2.0
In the face of unknown social structures, Turkish labour migrants huddled still closer together in this phase cf. Sezer , For this reason, during the founding stage of ethnic institutions, ostensible homogeneity prevailed among immigrants in spite of great diversity.
Owing to persistent political tensions, the Turkish military intervened for the third time on 12 September cf. At this stage, German aliens policy made the cardinal mistake of failing to recognise the objective immigration process and of adopting a restrictive and paradoxical course on integration.
By failing to accelerate the integration process and political participation by immigrants, the government favoured a renewal of ethnization 4 within the Turkish community. The renewal of self-description resulted just as much from the experience of exclusion in the home country and by the host country, as from compensation: Those affected finally sought inclusion in other social systems.
Depending on the systemic context, regional, national, or denominational origins have been emphasised cf. Fair and sustainable globalisation can lead to a socially equitable increase in wealth among trading partners and in the countries of the European Union. But for that we need a fundamental policy change. The European Union, and in particular the European Parliament, as the legitimate representative of European citizens, has the task of setting rules for economic and social fairness and sustainability and demanding their enforcement across Europe.
In Germany, too, we have to admit that we are only well if our European neighbours are doing well too. There cannot be a lasting split in the Union between globalisation winners and globalisation losers. Rural areas need special attention and help. Public services of general interest, access to education and participation in social developments must be available to all citizens, no matter where they live.
- The Dahlia Primer.
- Wie Zivilgesellschaft und soziale Profession organisierte Kriminalität bekämpfen;
- ...und wenn es nicht gestorben ist... Das Märchen innerhalb des Projektes Leselei: Märchen in der Anwendung (German Edition);
- Yoga Bitch: Wie Yoga nicht nur meinen Hintern, sondern auch mein Leben veränderte (German Edition)?
An efficient and well-functioning public service is an indispensable pillar for a democratic society. Digitalisation can make many things easier. Access to modern means of communication has to be accessible for everybody. The objectives of regional policies must be set with the broad participation of stakeholders and actions implemented quickly — and their fulfillment must be monitored transparently.
This transcends the framework of traditional regional policy, because it covers both the fields of action and of the actors as a whole.
Trade unions need to readjust and strengthen their regional presence. Especially in the regions trade unions must be at the forefront and by this trade unions and democracy in general can build lasting credibility. In order to be effective and successful in the effort to push back populist right-wing extremist parties, all trade union levels must be networked.
- The Night Passenger!
- Who Can Speak and Who Is Heard/Hurt?!
- The Golden Vanity?
- Isidor Wallimann.
- Color Me Healthy: Brown;
However, soon after its creation  it quickly became the word of the day in the everyday language of mass media and society. The reason why this term has survived for so long is because on the one hand, it was able to identify certain newly emerging and still observable phenomena among East Germans, while it was on the other hand totally unspecified analytically. Some scholars suggest that OstaIgie excludes this real, transfiguring nostalgia Ahbe However, a certain amount of nostalgia must surely be one reason why, for example, some purely symbolic products such as card games picturing former GDR packagings have become so popular among many East Germans.
I would, however, agree that Ostalgie is in many respects a rather lay and unreflected effort to re acquire GDR past that often includes an ironic touch ibid. These days, two particular phenomena can especially illustrate the appearance of Ostalgie in public: the revival of East German products and the cult of Ostalgie - parties. East Germans are deliberately buying Eastern products again.
According to an empirical poll from , these goods constituted 35 percent of the market base of East Germans. Aside from products like groceries and drugs and cosmetics whose preferred consumption could also be explained by different tastes and habits, considerable sales are also made with a number of products, which almost exclusively satisfy ostalgic or nostalgic wants.
These include certain books, cassettes and videotapes, parlour games such as the card game mentioned above , cult- and design products. Some of them have the sole purpose of keeping certain symbols, brands and signs of the GDR .